Calcium supplementation has long been recommended for the prevention of falls and associated non-vertebral fractures.
Vitamin D could also play a more important role in the prevention of falls and fractures than was previously assumed. On the one hand, vitamin D maintains calcium homeostasis and thus bone mineral density, and thereby contributes to preventing fractures. On the other hand, vitamin D also seems to have a positive effect on the muscular strength in the legs, which in turn can reduce the risk of falls.
Besides calcium and vitamin D supplementation, a sufficient serum phosphate level should also be present to ensure sufficient bone mineral density.
Based on current knowledge, the combined administration of calcium, vitamin D and phosphate therefore appears beneficial in preventing falls and fractures in the elderly.